Parents Guide To Protecting Children On The Internet
Parents often ask if they should allow their children to have access to the Internet. Some parents, after finding that their child has been exposed to pornography on the Internet, decide not to have Internet access in their home in an effort to protect their children from dangers found on the Internet. The Internet is a great asset with volumes and volumes of information on every imaginable topic.
Not all of the information on the Internet is accurate and not all of it is legal. Because the Internet is made up of Web sites hosted all over the world, it is very difficult to regulate. Lack of regulations make it difficult to identify material that is inappropriate for a minor which in turn makes it difficult to protect minors from that material. No person or child is ever 100% protected from harm. We learn to take precautions to minimize our exposure to the harms in our communities. We teach our children how to walk home safely from school: don’t accept rides from strangers, look before you cross the street, walk with a friend, etc. We give them rules on what type of TV shows they can watch and under what circumstances they can go to the park or the mall.
Precautions can be taken to protect children from the dangers on the Internet. It is very important that children learn about these precautions and why it is important to take them. Even if you choose not to have Internet access in your home, your children are going to have the opportunity to be on the Internet at friends’, family, school and the library. Teach them to navigate safely.
WHY DO I NEED TO PROTECT MY FAMILY WHEN THEY ARE ON THE INTERNET?
WHAT AREAS ON THE INTERNET SHOULD I BE CONCERNED ABOUT?
HOW DO I PROTECT MY FAMILY WHEN THEY ARE USING THE INTERNET?
HOW DO I KNOW IF MY CHILD IS AT RISK ON THE INTERNET?
WHAT SHOULD I DO IF I SUSPECT MY CHILD IS COMMUNICATING WITH A SEXUAL PREDATOR?
The Utah Department of Transportation reported that there were 53,151 car accidents in Utah during 2000 with 30,459 injuries and 373 fatalities.1 Those who don’t follow the rules on the road can face tragic consequences. Similarly, those who don’t protect themselves on the “information highway” can also be in danger. The Internet is a powerful tool as well as a valuable resource for the home or office. However, the Internet also has tangible dangers like predators, pornography and pedophilia. Internet users also have to be concerned about adult stalking, stolen identities, financial losses and destruction of property by hackers and virus authors. Although this may seem scary, it is important to note that dangers can be found in every part of our society. You and your family can learn ways to protect yourselves from these dangers to more safely take advantage of the resources available on the Internet.
There are a number of dangers that await children on the Internet. Among them:
- Social withdrawal: Excessive Internet use can lead to a neglect of homework, outdoor or social activities and withdrawal from the family.
- Exposure to inappropriate material: Minors have easy access to material that is sexual, hateful, violent, and encourages dangerous or illegal activities. They can find this information by searching with an unfiltered search engine, typing in a known address or clicking on a link from a Web site or e-mail. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. department of Justice, one out of four children have been sent pictures of people who were naked or having sex.2
- Physical harm: Internet predators use e-mail, chat rooms and bulletin boards to obtain contact information or to set up meetings, which could endanger your child or other members of your family. An Orem photographer recently pleaded guilty to sexual exploitation of children.3 After photographing the minors in sexually explicit activities he then exchanged the pictures on the Internet. The Department of Justice states that almost one out of every five kids has been solicited for sex on the Internet and 97 percent of the solicitors were unknown to the children 4
- Financial dangers: If children can access a parent’s credit card, they could be lured into giving account information to people they meet on the Internet or they could make unauthorized purchases. On many sites, making a purchase is as simple as typing in a credit card number and the expiration date. According to Visa, if a member of your immediate family (child, spouse, parent) borrows your credit card to make a purchase – with or without your knowledge – you could be liable for that purchase. Many Web sites will charge you for accessing the site, some even have a per minute charge, without requiring a credit card. The charges may be sent to you on your telephone bill or they may be mailed to you separately.
- Destruction of property: Your child could inadvertently access a computer virus, which could erase your hard drive, modify files or send destructive e-mails. This could happen simply by your child opening an unknown e-mail attachment with an extension like EXE, COM or VBS or running a program from unknown Internet sources.
WHAT AREAS ON THE INTERNET SHOULD I BE CONCERNED ABOUT?
- E-mail: Electronic text messages sent through the Internet to specific groups or individuals. E-mails can also contain attached files that include graphics, sound, and video. E-mailing requires a modem to connect the telephone line to the computer and an e-mail address. It is a fast, convenient and economical way to do business or to keep in touch with friends and family. However, children can be exposed to dangers by giving out their e-mail address to strangers they “meet” on the Internet. This allows predators to anonymously send personal messages, unsolicited pornographic messages (porn spam) or computer viruses to your child. Additionally, determined predators can find your child’s address and telephone number in directories, using only your child’s e-mail address.
- Instant Messaging: Instant messaging combines the live nature of chat rooms with the personalized one-on-one contact of e-mail. Instant messaging programs allow users to create their own network of friends to talk in “real time.” However, some instant messaging programs allow users to create personal profiles that can be accessed by any instant message user on the Internet. Additionally, predators can gain your child’s trust in chat rooms and then try to lure them into meeting them in person or send them pornographic content through the private, real-time communication that instant messaging provides.
- Chat Rooms: Chat rooms are areas of the Internet where comments from two or more users are posted instantly and simultaneously on the screen. Chat rooms can be used for legitimate purposes, such as talking to long-distance family members and friends and saving on the phone bill. However, they are often filled with strangers that enjoy the anonymity that chat rooms provide. With concealed identities, many individuals are encouraged to embellish the truth, lie, and use sexual and vulgar language.
- IRC: Internet Relay Chat (IRC) allows users to engage in real-time text conversation similar to public or private chat rooms of commercial on-line services. Like chat rooms, IRC is a public, insecure place and is a part of the Internet that is particularly open to undesirable use and exploitation.
- Newsgroups: Newsgroups are areas that organize postings on specialized topics for people such as Star Wars fans, baseball card collectors or cat lovers. Often newsgroups have moderators that keep the postings appropriate and organized. However, some newsgroups are unmoderated and contain obscene language and photos. Newsgroups that begin with “.alt” are unmoderated and are often dedicated to trading sexual comments and images.
- BBS Systems: Bulletin boards allow users to post messages, read messages left by others, trade information, or hold direct conversations. Individuals, businesses, or organizations can operate BBS systems. Like newsgroups, the material presented is usually theme oriented, offering information on hobbies and interests. Some private bulletin boards are designed especially for adults who wish to post, view or read sexually explicit material. However, a child can still access the bulletin boards.
- File Sharing: According to a youth Internet survey conducted by the Justice Department, 29 percent of youth were exposed to unwanted sexual material while file sharing or using e-mails and Instant Messages.5 (link to survey)
- Search Engines: Search engines use technology that sorts through millions of Internet documents to find files related to the searcher’s interest. The Justice Department also states that 71 percent of the unwanted exposures occurred while youth were surfing the web or using search engines. 6 Unfortunately, pornographic sites can appear in the search results for subjects as innocent as “kitten” or as informational as “breast cancer.”
- Adult Web Sites: It is common practice for adult Web sites to post free teaser images to entice and solicit new subscribers. Any computer-literate child with unrestricted Internet access can view these sites by accidentally accessing them or by deliberately seeking them out. Some of these sites will contain a warning that states users have to be 18 or older. Minors can ignore the warning and simply click into the Web site to gain access to these images. These sites contain nudity, explicit sex acts, child pornography, bestiality, and torture. Much of this material, if sent to Utah, would be subject to prosecution under statute U.C.A. §76-10-1203.
- Redialers or viewers: Some sites, many of them sexually explicit, have a program that disconnects your modem and then automatically redials your Internet connection through an international dialer. When that dialer connects, you are charged international rates of $2 to $7 a minute the rest of the time you are on the Internet.
HOW DO I PROTECT MY FAMILY WHEN THEY ARE USING THE INTERNET?
Parents can use many tools and techniques to help protect their families from the concerns identified above. Some tools prohibit your family from accessing certain material while others merely monitor what is being accessed. The type of tool you choose should be based on the age of your child and what you decide is appropriate for your family. In evaluating a program remember to consider all of the areas of concern and determine how that program will protect your family from that particular concern.
Internet safety tools:
- Filtering programs: More and more websites are containing pornographic content. It is easy to accidentally stumble across these sites while using search engines, checking your e-mail or even by mistyping an address. Beyond pornography, other sites promote violence, hate, drug abuse and fraud. To block offensive sites, several types of filters are available, although no filter can take the place of responsible parental supervision.
Typically, these filters can be set for different members of a family. Each user receives a password, and the parent can customize the filter to decide which sites are available for each user. Many ISPs provide filter services, but it is up to the ISP to update the filter and you have little control over the sites that are blocked. If your ISP doesn’t provide server-level junk filters, ask them to consider it. Some good filtering programs are available which filter e-mail. When choosing a filter, make sure the program has features to filter e-mail. They are not 100 percent effective but many do a good job of eliminating most of the porn spam.
- Blocking by address: This type of Internet blocking uses “stop lists” or “blacklists” of preselected sites. With address blocking, a team of employees scours the Internet looking for offensive sites. The sites are then placed in one or more categories such as “nudity” or “drug use” to be blocked by the filter. Most libraries use this form of filtering. This method tends to be very accurate, although mistakes do occasionally occur.
- Blocking by word: Word blocking stops Internet pages from loading if it encounters a word on its banned word list. Although this is largely effective (with the exception of offensive pictures without text), it can also limit non-offensive speech. Words like “breast” will block breast cancer sites and “sperm” will block medical information and information on sperm whales.
- Blocking everything except a “whitelist” or “allowlist”: These filters only display a group of preselected approved sites. This type of filter is 100 percent effective, but it leaves out a vast amount of sites that the selectors have not discovered.
- Blocking entire categories: Most filters allow the blocking of whole portions of the Internet, such as access to chat rooms, newsgroups, e-mail or games.
- Links to specific programs: We do not endorse any specific filtering/blocking product. However, these sites list the various filtering and blocking software programs available:
- Monitoring programs: Many programs have features which track the addresses of the Web sites visited on your computer without prohibiting access. A user can generate a weekly or monthly report so you know who accessed what site and how long they were on the site. Some will send a report to you at work if an unauthorized site has been accessed. Monitoring tools can be used with or without the knowledge of the other users. Some monitoring programs track all key strokes, so you can monitor chat room discussions and e-mails being sent. Remember, adults have a right of privacy. You should not use a monitoring program on an adult who has a right to use your computer.
Chatminder: This is a program that compiles transcripts of everything sent from and received on your computer. It can be used with other filters and online services.
Spector 2.1: This is a monitoring program that invisibly takes full screen snapshots of all activity on your computer for later playback.
ContentMonitor: This program monitors and logs all computer use, including online chats.
- Auditing programs: Audit programs search your computer for sites, words, and file names saved on your computer that could be objectionable. If the program finds anything that may be objectionable, it displays the URL, word, or file name so that you can know what has been viewed on your computer, remove the material, decide if you need a monitoring and filtering program. A free audit program can be accessed at http://www.contentwatch.com/audit.
- Time limit programs: Some programs allow parents to decide how much time they want their children to spend on the computer and during what hours. You may want to prevent your child from accessing the Internet during the middle of the night or while you are at work. When the child logs on, the child enters a password, which activates a timer. The computer is “locked” to the child during off hours or when the child has used up the allotted time. Some time limit programs will also restrict access to certain programs, such as games, while children use the computer for homework.
- Search Engines for families and kids: Like all search engines, they allow the user to search by a word or phrase but the search is limited to Web sites that are family friendly or appropriate for children.
www.yahooligans.com – a search engine especially for kids
www.familyfriendlysearch.com – a search engine that searches for family friendly Web sites on MYahooligans, AOL Kids, Kids Click, and Saluki.
www.familyseek.com --a searches about 2300 family friendly Web sites.
- Family friendly ISPs: Internet service providers typically offer direct, full
access to the Internet at a flat, monthly rate and often provide e-mail service for their customers. However, some ISP’s provide filtered access for child protection. Concerned parents should find out what options are available for them with their ISP. Some examples of filtered ISP’s are:
Provides information and links to family-friendly, filtered ISPs
(compiled by Kid Shield, an Internet safety group)
Contentwatch:http://www.contentwatch.com/ User decides standard for blocking unwanted content.
Integrity Online: http://www.integrity.com/ Based in Cleveland with nationwide access.
Internet4Families: http://www.i4families.com/ Nationwide access
Fishnet Online: http://www.fnol.net/ Based in Long Island, NY, nationwidedial-up.
- Family friendly Links: These are just a few Web sites that are fun, and appropriate, for kids, parents and family.
www.netsmartz.org - games and information on Internet safety. The Utah schools and the Boys and Girls Clubs are using this program.
www.childrens-express.org – news service produced by kids reporting on the issues that affect their lives
www.kids-korner.com – an interactive, on-line community built specifically for kids under 14. Includes activities such as sending kidkards, finding a penpal and other fun activities.
www.pbskids.org – kids can check out all of their favorite PBS shows such as Sesame Street, Mister Rogers and Barney
www.awesomelibrary.org – this daily updated site includes 19,000 reviewed education resources for teachers, students, parents and librarians.
www.worldvillage.com – includes a search engine, links to family oriented Web sites and educational games.
family.go.com – gives practical advice for families as well as ideas for fun stuff to do.
Links to links
- Tips for Child Safety Online
Teach Your Child Online Safety
Rules: Your child should understand that using a computer is a privilege, not a right. Preset rules help your child know what is acceptable and what isn’t. It is also practical to set rules as to the amount of time a child is allowed on the Internet as well as what types of sites they are allowed to visit. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children offers the following as appropriate rules:
1. I will not give out anyone’s personal information such as any part of a name, home address, credit card number, phone number, age, password, school name or location without my parents’ permission.
2. I will tell my parents right away if I come across any information that makes me feel confused or uncomfortable.
3. I will never agree to get together with someone I “meet” online.
4. I will never send a person my picture or anything else without first checking with my parents.
5. I will not respond to any messages that are mean or in any way make me feel uncomfortable. It is not my fault if I get messages like that. If I do receive that kind of message, I will tell my parents right away.
6. I will talk to my parents so we can set up rules for going online. I will not break these rules without their permission.
- Contracts: It is helpful for parents and children to formulate a contract to cement specific Internet rules. Items to include in the contract may be:
1. Where they can go and what they can do online
2. How much time they can spend on the Internet
3. What to do if something happens that makes them feel uncomfortable
4. How they can protect their personal information
5. How to stay safe in interactive environments
6. How to behave ethically and responsibly online
- Supervision Online Activity: Children may accidentally access an inappropriate site or may be curious and go looking for such sites. Although filters and rules are helpful, you can best protect your child from the dangers of the Internet by staying in touch with what they are doing.
1. To do this, spend time with them when they are online.
2. As you explore the wide range of information that is available, discuss which topics are appropriate and which you consider to be off-limits.
3. Since you will not always be sitting next to your children when they are on the Internet, keep the computer in a public area of the house, so your children do not have the opportunity to view offensive material in secrecy.
4. Also, monitor the amount of time that your child spends on the computer.
5.You may want to restrict Internet use during hours that you are not available.
Check Web sites your child visits and, because of the child predators online, monitor chats and e-mails from time to time. It is just like teaching your child regular street smarts: don’t talk to strangers, don’t give your phone number away, and other important safety measures. With Internet access so readily available, it is important to make sure that parents, as well as children, are Internet savvy. Teaching your child the importance of not giving information over the Internet and letting them know appropriate limits will enable your child to safely take advantage of the resources the Internet has to offer.
Be Computer Literate.
Web browsers save information on your computer hard drive about the Web sites you visit such as addresses, text, and graphics. This information makes it easier for you to find the same site the next time you are on the Web. This information is stored in two basic areas:
Internet History: Parents can be aware of what sites their children are accessing online by frequently checking the history file. The history file can be viewed from your Internet browser by going to the toolbar and clicking on the History button. Generally all of the Web sites accessed from your computer will be listed by date. You can tell your computer how long to save the information by going to the Tools section of your Internet browser and then selecting Internet Options. This screen allows you to select how many days you would like the history saved. It also allows you to delete the history.
Temporary Internet files: A temporary Internet file is created every time a Web site is accessed. Some children may know about the history file and delete it so you won’t know what sites they have been accessing. It is always wise to double check the temporary Internet file to check what sites have been accessed. You can review these sites and images by taking the following steps:
Double-click on the My Computer icon on your desktop.
Double-click on the C drive folder.
Double-click on the Windows folder.
Double-click on the Temporary Internet Files folder.
All of the files in the folder are pages viewed on the Internet. To view any of the pages, simply double click.
Temporary Internet Files can be deleted by going to the Tools section of your Internet browser and then selecting Internet Options.
If you have trouble finding the “History” or “Temporary Internet Files” on your computer go to “Help” and search in the index for “History” and then “Temporary Internet Files” for directions.
Ways to stop pop-up screens and mousetraps: Mousetrapping occurs when the page includes a code which disables the browser’s back, forward and exit buttons. Clicking these buttons cause new pages to open (usually pornographic) creating a seemingly endless inescapable loop. The following can help you get out of these traps:
Control/W: Using the ‘close window’ keyboard shortcut, the Control/W command, immediately closes pop up screens and “mousetrapped” sites that disable the browser’s back button.
Control/Alt/Del: Pressing Control/Alt/Delete brings up a list of the programs running, which allows you to select the offensive program and close it.
- Protect Your Child When They Are Away From Home
It is important to remember that parents are ultimately responsible for their children’s on-line behavior, so discuss with your child how you feel about them using the Internet and the rules when they are online even when they are away from home.
At School or the Library: Most schools and libraries have made it possible for students to have a computer lab to do homework, research and other educational activities. A moderator is in attendance at school labs to monitor and guide students. At the library, librarians monitor the computer use. Unfortunately, the moderator/librarian cannot be a constant guardian and protector of your child.
Make sure your child knows:
What to do if they come across inappropriate material;
To talk to you if they have questions or concerns;
You are going to ask them what they have seen;
To ask the moderator/librarian for help if they find inappropriate material;
What you consider inappropriate material.
When your child will be accessing the Internet, you should:
Ask whether your school or library filters Internet access and what program they use;
Ask how many moderators or librarians per students are in the room during Internet use;
Ask if the school or library is using a closed list of approved sites or if your child will have access to the entire Internet;
Ask the moderator or librarian to notify you if your child is exposed to any inappropriate material (they generally do not tell you when your child has been exposed to inappropriate material);
Know if they allow the students to bring computer disks into the school lab (students sometimes bring disks that contain pornography in order to show it to their friends);
Know the rules and policies for using the lab or library computers.
Currently schools and libraries are required to have a system or plan to protect children from being exposed to pornography. U.S. v. American Library Assn., Inc., 539 U.S. ___ 2003. No system is fool-proof which means your child may be exposed to pornography. The most important thing you can do to protect your child is talk to them and make them feel that they can talk to you openly about what they have seen.
At a friend’s home: Every home has different rules and standards. It is important that your child knows how your family feels about using computers away from home. Some families keep a computer in a designated “computer room,” some keep it in the child’s room, while others keep it right in the middle of the family room. You should meet your child’s friend and family and talk about their rules and yours. You should find out:
Where your child’s friend’s computer is located;
If there is Internet access and if it is filtered;
If a parent is home to monitor the use;
What the rules are for using the computer;
With this information you should decide if you feel your child will be safe using the computer at the friend’s home and take appropriate action based on your decision.
HOW DO I KNOW IF MY CHILD IS AT RISK ON THE INTERNET?
Parents can look for a number of signs or behaviors that indicate your child may be at risk while online. Remember, these are only possible indications. If you see any of these signs, you should look into why your child is behaving in this manner.
Acting Suspicious - If your child turns the computer monitor off, changes the screen, jumps, looks guilty when you come into the room or locks the door so you can’t come into the room, your child may be trying to hide what is being viewed. Other suspicious behavior is lying about computer use, being evasive when questioned and withdrawing from the family.
Change in Behavior - If you notice your child changes his or her tolerance level of what is bad and what is appropriate or begins to act inappropriately.
Deletes Files - If you find all the computer History files or the Temporary Internet Files erased and you know the Internet has been accessed since you last erase these files.
Pornography Stored on Computer - If you find pornography stored on the computer or on computer disks. Predators often send child and adult pornography to children to get them curious and to make them think sex with an adult is “normal.” If your child starts taking disks with him or her when your child leaves the home, you should find out why.
Excessive Time - If your child spends a lot of time online.
Odd Hours - If your child is online late at night or when others are not home.
Excessive Chat - If your child spends most of his/her online time in chatrooms. Many chatroom discussions are very sexually explicit and most predators contact their victims in chatrooms.
Odd Phone Calls - If your child suddenly begins receiving phone calls from strangers or starts making calls to strangers. Check your caller ID and your long distance bill for strange numbers. Also, be aware that access to many Web sites is billed to your phone bill account.
Credit Card Charges - You find unfamiliar charges on your credit card. Credit cards are easy to use on the Internet.
Receiving Mail - If your child starts receiving mail or packages from unknown people or sources. Predators have been known to send pictures, gifts, and plane tickets to children through the mail. Another possibility is that your child has ordered pornographic materials.
Excess Money - If your child has money, clothing or gifts that you can't explain. Predators often spend money on a child when they are trying to build the child’s trust.
Using Alternative Access Methods - If you suspect your child is accessing the Internet at a friend’s house, through someone else's account or by using the free AOL disk that came in the mail. Predators often give children an alternate user name and password to get around the filters or other controls parents may have on the child's account.
WHAT SHOULD I DO IF I SUSPECT MY CHILD IS COMMUNICATING WITH A SEXUAL PREDATOR?
If you suspect your child is communicating with a sexual predator online:
- Talk openly with your child about your suspicious. Tell them about the dangers of sexual predators, and express your love and concern for your child.
- Find out who is calling your child on the telephone and who your child is calling. Predators will often contact children in other ways after establishing contact online. A Caller ID will monitor incoming calls, and devices are available on the market to show phone numbers dialed from your home phone.
- Keep monitoring your child’s access to all types of Internet communications, i.e. chat rooms, e-mail, IMs, Internet Relay Chat, etc.
Should any of the following situations arise, immediately contact your local or state law enforcement agency (Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force), the FBI and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children:
- Your child (or anyone in your household) receives child pornography.
- Your child is sexually solicited by someone that knows your child is under the age of 18.
- Your child receives sexually explicit images by someone that knows your child is under the age of 18.
- Also, immediately switch off the computer and keep it turned off in order to preserve necessary evidence for future law enforcement use.
ADDITIONAL LINKS ON INTERNET SAFETY
These sites contain information that may be helpful for information about the Internet but that does not mean that they are endorsed by the Utah Attorney General’s Office.
Get Net Wise - www.getnetwise.org
- The Internet safety guide that is age specific, broken down into broad categories (family, children, teens), and into more narrow categories (2-4 yrs old, 4-11, 12-14, 14-17).
- Features that allow parents to search for appropriate filter programs based on their family’s needs. Individual programs are explained function by function. Pros and cons are listed for each filter feature.
- Lists appropriate web sites for children to visit.
Links for parents, families, and children.
Cyber Angels - www.cyberangels.org
Internet safety 101 (found in main selection box) has good definitions and descriptions of computer functions and programs, parent safety information, etc.
- Tips for online safety.
- Information about cyber stalking.
- Information for new comers to the web (understanding cyberspace, netiquette, getting started, general risks, etc).
- Links to sites providing information on privacy, security, spam, and fraud.
Netsmartz - www.netsmartz.org
Very easy to understand information on Internet safety with tips for parents and many fun games for children. This site is being used by the Utah schools to help educate children on Internet safety.
Intel's PC Parents Program - http://www97.intel.com/education/index.asp
This site gives parents ideas about how to maximize children’s educational experience when using technology.
These two Web sites are very similar. They provide insight and tips for kids on how to be safe on the Internet.
This site contains a information for parents and children on Internet safety.
Federal Bureau of Investigation www.fbi.gov
- Safety tips for K-5th grades.
- Safety tips for 6th-12th grades.
- Parent’s Guide to Internet Safety www.fbi.gov/publications/pguide/pguidee.htm
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
Article: A safety Net for the Internet: Protecting Our Children
- Information on pedophiles and their methods.
- Information on protecting kids online.
- Information on computer access outside the home.
Parents Information Network www.pin.org.uk
- Detailed review of 17 popular filter programs.
- Internet guide for parents (info, safety, etc.).
- Links to family sites and homework help sites.
- Internet safety guide for parents
- Internet 101 for parents (history, basics, uses)
- Links to safe sites for families, to educational sites, and to safety sites.
Safety Ed International www.safetyed.org
- Resources for parents (Internet safety, chat room safety, online stalking etc)
- Filter debate (Is filtering the best way to go: pros and cons)
- Links to pro filtering and anti filtering sites.
1. 2000 Utah Crash Facts - Crash Overview, Intermountain Injury Control Research Center with 200 CRASH data from the University of Utah CODES Project. Revised version, October 2001.
2. Highlights of the Youth Internet Safety Survey (PDF format), Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, March 2001 No. 4.
3. Ashley Broughton, Photographer Indicted on Porn Charges, Salt Lake Tribune, November 3, 2002 at Utah Page: B3.
4. Highlights of the Youth Internet Safety Survey (PDF format), Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, March 2001 No. 4.